On the Horizon

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The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionarily ancient Patten Recognition Receptors (PRRs) that rapidly detect microbial infection and stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines and chemokines, as well as initiating significant metabolic shifts within the cell. Acting as cellular sentinels for infectious threats, signalling downstream of TLRs sets the stage for successful development of adaptive immunity 1.

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