How does CRISPR work?

CRISPR is a gene editing system identified in bacteria where it is used as a defence against viral attack. How CRISPR works: Identified in archaea and bacteria, short nucleic acid sequences are captured from invading pathogens and integrated in the CRISPR loci amidst the repeats. Small RNAs, produced by transcription of these loci, can then guide a set of endonucleases to cleave the genomes of future invading pathogens, thereby disabling their attacks. Using CRISPR in the labScientists can leverage the CRISPR mechanism using a guide RNA (gRNA) for targeting and Enodnuclease (Cas9), often referred to as ��Molecular Scissors', to effect a double-strand break in the cell DNA at a targeted location, enabling knockout or knockin of gene function.