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How are cfDNA HDx Reference Standards different from other circulating tumor DNA controls?

In molecular biology, plasmid DNA has proved to be a vital tool for many applications. However, when developing or validating circulating tumor DNA assays (also known as cfDNA assays) which will ultimately measure fragmented human genomic DNA samples, plasmid and synthetic DNA are not ideal control samples. Laboratories should be cautious in adopting plasmids as controls for respective assays as they do not represent the true genomic complexity of human tumor samples. Therefore the results achieved with controls derived from plasmids may not be robust.