Histone Acetylation

Examples of popular knockouts

HDAC1

HDAC4

HDAC9

SIRT5

HDAC10

HDAC5

SIRT1

SIRT6

HDAC11

HDAC6

SIRT2

 

HDAC2

HDAC7

SIRT3

 

HDAC3

HDAC8

SIRT4

 

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Histone Modification Epigenetics

One key modification is histone acetylation of the N-terminal tail and this is regulated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Acetylation is a type of epigenetic marker of chromatin and results in the condensed chromatin “relaxing” and in this state it is known as euchromatin, this allows greater access to the DNA for proteins such as transcription factors and results in greater levels of gene transcription.

Histone Acetylation Imbalance

HDACs are enzymes which reverse the acetylation of histones, resulting in tightening of the chromatin (heterochromatin) and decreases in gene transcription. Imbalance of histone acetylation is a common aspect of many disorders and HDAC inhibitors are of interest for treatment of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders.

Histone Acetylation Diagram

Cell Lines for Studying Histone Acetylation

Figure 1. The following HDAC knockout cell lines were analyzed by Western blotting using the following antibodies:

HDAC1

clone 1013-10

Abcam ab187947

HDAC2

clone 1012-4

Abcam ab187941

HDAC3

clone 579-3

Abcam Ab7030

HDAC8

clone 1015-10

Santa Cruz sc11405

Source: Dr. Christian Seiser, MPFL, Medical University of Vienna

Histone Blot